The thermal energy of a substance increases when it is heated. This thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy and can cause physical changes in the substance. These physical changes can be seen as a change in the temperature of the substance, a change in the volume of the substance, or a change in the shape of the substance.
When the thermal energy of a substance increases, it undergoes a phase change from one form to another. This process can be summarized by three rules:
(1) the heat of vaporization is greater than the heat of fusion;
(2) the vaporization enthalpy is greater than the fusion enthalpy; and
(3) for liquid and solid substances, vaporization takes place at a lower temperature than fusion. These three rules are called Henry’s laws of thermodynamics.
And, The thermal energy of a substance increases when the temperature of a sample increases. The molecules move faster because they are warmer. As the temperature increases, so does the kinetic energy of the molecules. When the molecules reach the speed of sound, their thermal energy exceeds the potential energy. The molecules stop moving and become solid.
Heat and thermal energy are different forms of energy. Thermal energy is the amount of energy in the atoms, molecules, and other particles that make up matter. Heat is an increase in the kinetic energy of the particles. The greater the temperature, the more kinetic energy atoms have.
When thermal energy is added to a substance, it can cause various changes. This thermal energy can be in the form of light, heat, or motion. The first change that occurs is that the temperature of the substance increases. This increase in temperature can cause different molecules within the substance to move faster or change their arrangement. The second change that often occurs is a release of energy. This energy can be used to do work or create heat.
When the thermal energy of a substance increases, the atoms or molecules of that substance move faster and farther apart. This change in kinetic energy causes a rise in the temperature of the substance. Additionally, an increase in thermal energy can also cause a substance to change state, from a solid to a liquid or gas, for example. Finally, an increase in thermal energy can cause chemical reactions to take place at a faster rate.